país de Europa

  • República Portuguesa 
  •  República de Portugal 
  •  Republica Portuguesa 
  •  Republica de Portugal

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país de Europa

Portugal (Portuguese: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 4] is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in south-western Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The official and national language is Portuguese.

Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians-Carthaginians, Ancient Greeks and ruled by the Romans, who were followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples. After the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors, most of its territory was part of Al-Andalus. Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora (1143).[13]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global maritime and commercial empire, becoming one of the world’s major economic, political and military powers.[14] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country’s occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) erased to a great extent Portugal’s prior opulence.[15]

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of what can be considered one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, and many Portuguese-based creoles. It is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards.[16][17][18] Additionally, it is highly placed in rankings of moral freedom (2nd), peacefulness (3rd), democracy (7th),[19] press freedom (10th), stability (14th), social progress (21st), and prosperity (27th). A member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Council of Europe (CoE), Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.



Idioma portugués

lengua románica originaria de la península ibérica

El idioma portugués (português  escuchar o língua portuguesa) es una lengua romance flexiva, procedente del galaicoportugués. Tras la independencia de Portugal en 1139 y la posterior reconquista hacia el sur, el idioma se fue expandiendo por los límites del actual Portugal. Asimismo, la lengua se fue difundiendo en el periodo de los descubrimientos por Brasil, seis países en África y otras partes del mundo.[2]

Hablado enBandera de Portugal Portugal
Bandera de Brasil Brasil
Bandera de Guinea-Bisáu Guinea-Bisáu
Bandera de Mozambique Mozambique
Bandera de Timor Oriental Timor Oriental
Bandera de Angola Angola
Bandera de Macao Macao (RPC)
Bandera de Santo Tomé y Príncipe Santo Tomé y Príncipe
Bandera de Guinea Ecuatorial Guinea Ecuatorial
Bandera de Cabo Verde Cabo Verde
Hablantes260 945 470[1] (2013)

Con aproximadamente 260 000 000 de hablantes,[1]​ el portugués es la séptima lengua materna más hablada del mundo y la tercera lengua más hablada en usar el alfabeto latino, después del español y el inglés.[1]​ El portugués es también la lengua más hablada del hemisferio sur, con Angola, Mozambique, Timor Oriental y, en primer lugar, Brasil.

Actualmente, es la lengua principal de Portugal, Brasil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Cabo Verde, Santo Tomé y Príncipe y Timor Oriental; todos estos países conforman la Comunidad de países de lengua portuguesa. Asimismo posee una pequeña cantidad de hablantes en Macao (aunque se detecta un importante repunte en su uso por las relaciones comerciales entre China y los países lusófonos) y en Goa; también se habla en su forma criollizada, en algunos sectores de la India, Sri Lanka, Malasia e Indonesia. Se habla también por colonias grandes e importantes de países de habla portuguesa establecidas como Andorra, Luxemburgo, Canadá, Estados Unidos, Namibia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Francia, Japón, Colombia, y Venezuela.[3]​ Además de tener un alto número de hablantes en localidades de la frontera hispano-portuguesa como es el caso de Badajoz o de la La Codosera.[cita requerida]

El portugués es conocido como la «lengua de Camões», el autor del poema épico Os Lusíadas y como «la última flor del Lacio», expresión usada en el soneto Língua portuguesa del escritor brasileño Olavo Bilac.[4]​ Por su parte, Miguel de Cervantes consideraba al portugués una lengua «dulce y agradable».[5]​ En marzo de 2006 abrió sus puertas el Museo de la Lengua Portuguesa en São Paulo, la ciudad con mayor número de lusófonos del mundo.[6]